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Sialocele (Salivary Mucocele)

Sialocele (Salivary Mucocele)   Sialocele is defined as the accumulation of saliva in the tissue due to leakage from a salivary gland or salivary duct. This condition is rare and occurs in less than 5/1,000 dogs. The condition is most common in young dogs, 2-4 years of age. It occurs more commonly in German Shepherds […]

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Cystotomy and Scrotal Urethrostomy

Cystic Calculi Cystic calculi, also called bladder stones or uroliths, are commonly seen in both dogs and cats. There are four predominant types of bladder stones: struvite, calcium oxalate, purine, and urate. Between 5-15% of bladder stones are mixed composition. Treatment options and risk factors depend on the type of stone present, therefore each bladder […]

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Urethral Prolapse

Urethral Prolapse Urethral prolapse is defined as the extrusion of the urethral mucosa through the external urethral orifice of the penis. This condition occurs most commonly in young male dogs that have not been neutered. Brachycephalic breeds (e.g., bulldogs, Boston terriers, pugs) and Yorkshire terriers may be predisposed to urethral prolapse. Although we don’t know […]

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Diskospondylitis

Discospondylitis is an infection of the intervertebral disk and end plates. Hematogenous spread secondary to a pre-existing condition, urinary or skin infections are noted in some cases. Diskospondylitis is commonly seen in young large breed dogs and rarely in cats. The L7-S1 disk is the most common site affected; involvement of multiple sites is common. […]

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Epidural Analgesia

An epidural injection of an opioid and/or a local anesthetic is most commonly given under anesthesia, immediately prior to abdominal or pelvic limb surgery. Readers are referred to texts for information on specific drugs and dosages. The site for epidural injection is the lumbosacral space in both dogs and cats. The patient is placed in […]

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Fibrocartilaginous Embolus in Schnauzers

A recent report in the AAHA Journal indicates that a fibrocartilaginous embolus (FCE) is a common cause of rear limb paralysis in Schnauzers. The exact cause of FCE is still unknown but current theories focus on material being pushed from the intervertebral disc into the vertebral sinus system, thereby creating an embolic episode in the […]

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Fracture Repair by Circular External Skeletal Fixator (ESF)

Circular external skeletal fixators (CESF), also known as the Ilizarov apparatus or ring fixators, are a series of 2-4 high strength aluminum rings connected with threaded rods, hinges or distraction motors. A CESF is secured to bone using 1-1.6mm highly tensioned wires, or positive threaded fixation pins. Small bone fragments, less than 1cm in length […]

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Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD) Percutaneous Laser Disc Ablation LDA

Percutaneous Laser Disc Ablation (PLDA) is a minimally invasive preventative procedure for thoracolumbar degenerative disc disease in dogs. This procedure was developed by Dr. Kenneth E. Bartels at Oklahoma State University. Hundreds of dogs have undergone percutaneous disc ablation since the procedure was clinically introduced in 1993. PLDA is recommended as a preventative procedure to […]

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Intervertebral Disc Disease (IVDD)- Care of a Paralyzed Pet

There are some spinal conditions that result in paralysis, which is the inability to move the legs.  The most common cause of paralysis in dogs is intervertebral disk disease. Most dogs that suffer from disk disease can be cured with medical or surgical treatment, and so their paralysis is only temporary.  However, sometimes spinal cord […]

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Lumbosacral Disease

  Lumbosacral stenosis is a common cause of pain in older, large breed dogs. In some cases the patient may demonstrate intermittent non-weight bearing lameness in one pelvic limb, if the compression is asymmetric. Patients suffering from LS disease generally present with either intense lower back pain or pain/lameness involving one rear leg (root signature […]

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