Category Archives: Medical Library

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Arthroscopy

Arthroscopy is for both the diagnosis and treatment of a variety joint diseases.  Arthro- is derived from the greek word for joint while –scope (“skopein”) is a greek word meaning an instrument for viewing. There are multiple advantages of arthroscopy over open arthrotomy with a traditional incision.  Arthroscopy is minimally invasive and allows better visualization of […]

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Atlanto-axial (A-A) instability

Atlanto-axial (A-A) instability is generally seen in juvenile toy breeds due to congenital malformation or absence of the dens and/or associated ligamentous structures. A-A instability is occasionally seen in other breeds due to trauma. Patients will often present with neck pain, weakness and occasionally paralysis. Surgical stabilization of the A-A articulation is the treatment of […]

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Coxofemoral (Hip) Luxation

The hip is the articulation between the femur (thigh bone) and the pelvis.  It is considered a “ball-and-socket” joint in which the “ball” is the head of the femur and the “socket” is the acetabulum of the pelvis. Coxofemoral luxation occurs when the head of the femur becomes luxated (dislocated) from the acetabulum.  Below is […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) Overview

What is a cruciate tear? Canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic injury seen in dogs.  You may hear veterinarians refer to this injury as an “ACL tear,” which is an adaptation from human orthopedics, but the terms are often used interchangeably.  The CCL is a ligament inside the knee that […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) – Extracapsular Repair

Lateral fabellar suture, Tightrope, and Bone anchor procedures: Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs ( see CCL Overview Section ).  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) – Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO)

Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs (see CCL overview section ).  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal locomotion leads to forward translation (tibial thrust) […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL)-Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA)

Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs (see CCL overview section)  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal locomotion leads to forward […]

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Mandibulectomy and Maxillectomy

Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy, removal of portions of the mandible and/or maxilla,  are valuable procedures in treatment of oral neoplasms (cancers). The most common indication is for excision of benign or locally aggressive neoplasms, such as the epulides. Removal of malignant neoplasms, such as osteosarcoma, offers a more guarded prognosis, with increased chance for distant metastases. Tumors […]

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Mast Cell Tumors

Cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are a common form of neoplasia(cancer) in the dog. Mast cells are normal immune system cells. The intracellular cytoplasmic granules contain heparin, histamine, platelet-activating factor, and eosinophilic chemotactic factor. The visual appearance of cutaneous MCT is variable; they can look like almost any lesion. MCT are generally easily diagnosed with […]

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Degenerative Myelopathy

Degenerative myelopathy is a slowly progressive neurologic disorder that is manifested as a rear limb weakness that will eventually cause rear limb paralysis.  Degenerative myelopathy was first described in 1973 as a non-inflammatory primary axonal degeneration.  This disease affects both the myelin surrounding the nerve fibers and the nerve fibers themselves.  Myelin is a structure […]

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