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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) Overview

What is a cruciate tear? Canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic injury seen in dogs.  You may hear veterinarians refer to this injury as an “ACL tear,” which is an adaptation from human orthopedics, but the terms are often used interchangeably.  The CCL is a ligament inside the knee that […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) – Extracapsular Repair

Lateral fabellar suture, Tightrope, and Bone anchor procedures: Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs ( see CCL Overview Section ).  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) – Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO)

Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs (see CCL overview section ).  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal locomotion leads to forward translation (tibial thrust) […]

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Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL)-Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA)

Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) Background Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease is the most common orthopedic disease in dogs (see CCL overview section)  The CCL is located inside the knee and functions to stabilize the knee during locomotion. Because the articular surface of the canine tibia (shin bone) is sloped backward, normal locomotion leads to forward […]

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Mandibulectomy and Maxillectomy

Mandibulectomy and maxillectomy, removal of portions of the mandible and/or maxilla,  are valuable procedures in treatment of oral neoplasms (cancers). The most common indication is for excision of benign or locally aggressive neoplasms, such as the epulides. Removal of malignant neoplasms, such as osteosarcoma, offers a more guarded prognosis, with increased chance for distant metastases. Tumors […]

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Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors

Cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are a common form of neoplasia(cancer) in the dog. Mast cells are normal immune system cells. The intracellular cytoplasmic granules contain heparin, histamine, platelet-activating factor, and eosinophilic chemotactic factor. The visual appearance of cutaneous MCT is variable; they can look like almost any lesion. MCT are generally easily diagnosed with […]

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Degenerative Myelopathy

Degenerative myelopathy is a slowly progressive neurologic disorder that is manifested as a rear limb weakness that will eventually cause rear limb paralysis.  Degenerative myelopathy was first described in 1973 as a non-inflammatory primary axonal degeneration.  This disease affects both the myelin surrounding the nerve fibers and the nerve fibers themselves.  Myelin is a structure […]

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Diaphragmatic Hernia

Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias Definition The diaphragm is a muscle made up of two parts, a strong central portion and a weaker outer portion. The diaphragm separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity. A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) occurs when the diaphragm is disrupted in a way such that abdominal organs can enter the thoracic cavity. […]

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Diskospondylitis

Discospondylitis is an infection of the intervertebral disk and end plates. Hematogenous spread secondary to a pre-existing condition, urinary or skin infections are noted in some cases. Diskospondylitis is commonly seen in young large breed dogs and rarely in cats. The L7-S1 disk is the most common site affected; involvement of multiple sites is common. […]

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Ear Canal Ablation and Bulla Osteotomy

The canine and feline ear is comprised of the pinna (ear flap), vertical ear canal, horizontal ear canal, middle ear, and inner ear.  The ear canal is mostly comprised of secretory epithelium (skin) and cartilage. The middle ear is deep to the ear drum and is surrounded by bone known as the tympanic bulla. The […]

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