Category Archives: Medical Library

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Elbow Dysplasia

Elbow dysplasia is a common cause of forelimb lameness in large and giant breed dogs. Breeds that are overrepresented include the Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, Chow Chow, Rottweiler and Bernese Mountain Dog. Elbow dysplasia includes a group of specific diseases, including primary incongruency of the elbow joint, fragmented coronoid process (FCP), ununited anconeal process (UAP), […]

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Epidural Analgesia

An epidural injection of an opioid and/or a local anesthetic is most commonly given under anesthesia, immediately prior to abdominal or pelvic limb surgery. Readers are referred to texts for information on specific drugs and dosages. The site for epidural injection is the lumbosacral space in both dogs and cats. The patient is placed in […]

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Episioplasty

Episioplasty, the surgical excision of excessive perivulvar skin folds, is recommended as the treatment of choice for perivulvar dermatitis or chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) believed to be secondary to excessive perivulvar skin folds. Perivulvar dermatitis has been reported to develop in female dogs with congenital or conformational abnormalities such as hypoplastic, infantile, […]

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Feline Perineal Urethrostomy

Perineal Urethrostomy, commonly abbreviated PU, is the surgical treatment of choice for male cats that have recurrent episodes of urethral obstruction. Cats as a species are highly susceptible to environmental stress and particular cats will develop a condition known as “feline idiopathic cystitis” or FIC.  FIC results in inflammation of the urinary tract and produces […]

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Femoral Head Ostectomy (FHO)

Background The femoral head ostectomy (FHO) is a salvage procedure that can be performed on both dogs and cats of almost any age.  The FHO removes the femoral head and neck of the femur in order to eliminate the bone-on-bone contact of the hip. This is done to alleviate pain associated with diseased or injured […]

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Fibrocartilaginous Embolism (FCE)

Fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy Fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) occurs when fibrocartilaginous material becomes trapped within a spinal or vertebral blood vessel.  FCE can be thought of as a “stroke to the spinal cord.” When this happens, blood supply to a small portion of the spinal cord is compromised and spinal cord injury ensues. The fibrocartilaginous material is […]

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Fibrocartilaginous Embolus in Schnauzers

A recent report in the AAHA Journal indicates that a fibrocartilaginous embolus (FCE) is a common cause of rear limb paralysis in Schnauzers. The exact cause of FCE is still unknown but current theories focus on material being pushed from the intervertebral disc into the vertebral sinus system, thereby creating an embolic episode in the […]

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Fracture Healing by Biologic Osteosynthesis

As long as there is adequate stabilization, even highly comminuted fractures will heal faster when the soft tissue envelope has not been disrupted. The rate of fracture healing and remodeling depends on several factors, including the degree of soft tissue injury. Preservation of the soft tissue envelope maintains blood supply to the fracture fragments and […]

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Fracture of the Radius and Ulna in Small breed dogs

  The distal radius and ulna of toy breed dogs  has been shown to have a higher than normal incidence of abnormal healing of the bone following fracture repair. Placement of a cast or splint alone or combined with an IM pin does not provide for rotational stability and has a high incidence of fibrous […]

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Fracture Repair by Circular External Skeletal Fixator (ESF)

Circular external skeletal fixators (CESF), also known as the Ilizarov apparatus or ring fixators, are a series of 2-4 high strength aluminum rings connected with threaded rods, hinges or distraction motors. A CESF is secured to bone using 1-1.6mm highly tensioned wires, or positive threaded fixation pins. Small bone fragments, less than 1cm in length […]

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