Category Archives: Surgery
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Cystic Calculi Cystic calculi, also called bladder stones or uroliths, are commonly seen in both dogs and cats. There are four predominant types of bladder stones: struvite, calcium oxalate, purine, and urate. Between 5-15% of bladder stones are mixed composition. Treatment options and risk factors depend on the type of stone present, therefore each bladder […]Read More